Greetings USCAP Members and Colleagues!

As this is my last newsletter article, I would like to thank all of you for your support during my Presidency. It has been my great honor to serve you and our Academy and to push forward the mission of the United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology.

My year as President has been an exciting one. I was able to herald a new site for the Annual Meeting, Baltimore's Inner Harbor, which resulted in a record number of attendees. It was gratifying to be part of the process to improve our infrastructure, including the development of the website that we hope to be able to enjoy this fall. Finally, I am pleased to see that Council has increased their involvement in Academy decisions.

It was a busy and productive year, and I want to thank Dr. Smoller, the dedicated staff at the Academy office, and all of our volunteer members who have helped to achieve the many goals we attained during the year. Thanks to all working together, the Academy continues to fulfill its mission to provide our membership with state-of-art information for the practice of anatomic, molecular, and genomic pathology.

In summary, the future of the Academy looks great! So, as my last act as President, I take great delight in introducing you to our new President: Dr. Jeff Myers. Welcome, Jeff, we look forward to your leadership!


Linda Ferrell, M.D.
Distinguished Professor in Anatomic Pathology, Vice Chair
Director of Surgical Pathology, Department of Pathology,
University of California, San Francisco
President, USCAP


Dear Friends and Colleagues,

I am pleased to report in my first newsletter to USCAP members that your 2013 Annual Meeting was another smashing success, by any measure! As summarized in our Executive Vice President, Bruce Smoller's column, we broke our previous attendance record by more than 100 attendees. Our attendees reflected the growing global influence of an increasingly international Academy. The success of our flagship event is the result of a remarkable team effort that includes not only the 4,584 attendees who made the trip but also staff in our Augusta office who continuously supersede all reasonable expectations, as well as a community of dedicated pathologist volunteers who populate our committees and council. Thank you to the thousands of individuals who together account for our unprecedented collective successes!

Highlights from this year's meeting included Nathan Kaufman Timely Topics (Christopher Crum) and Maude Abbott (Victor Reuter) Lectures in which two of our most prolific clinician-scientists showcased the unique opportunities for pathologists to translate laboratory discoveries into practices that change the way we care for patients.

Recipients of our Distinguished Pathologist (Krishnan Unni) and Harvey Goldman Master Teaching (Sharon Weiss) Awards offered further reminders that we stand in the midst of giants, just as recipients of the Ramzi Cotran Young Investigator (Celina Kleer), Stowell-Orbison (Clariss Cassol, Andres Matoso, Alexis Scherl, and David Solomon), Benjamin Castleman (Abner Louissaint), F. Stephen Vogel (Bojana Djordjevic), and ADASP/USCAP Autopsy (Yaolin Zhou) and Surgical Pathology (Jake Dennis) Awards demonstrated the vitality of a discipline that continues to attract the best and the brightest. Whatever our challenges, the Baltimore event made it clear that your Academy is the industry leader in supporting pathology's role in transforming health care by offering a place in which discovery, innovation and education are celebrated as springboards for whatever comes next.

Our Education Committee, in collaboration with the USCAP leadership and staff, continues to refresh the ways in which we meet the increasingly complex educational needs of pathologists in North America and elsewhere. In May, our Practical Pathology Seminars will be in San Francisco under the direction of Jesse McKenney, with an all-star faculty focusing on diagnostic challenges important in daily practice. Topics this year include ovarian tumors, common problems in gastrointestinal pathology, extranodal lymphomas, pancreaticobiliary neoplasms and their mimics, and practical issues in diagnosis, staging and reporting of prostate cancer. Come join us from May 2nd through May 5th at Hyatt Fisherman's Wharf, a premiere San Francisco luxury hotel, to learn in an informal atmosphere with opportunities for one-on-one dialogue with the world's experts.

Diagnostic Pathology, under the direction of Wendy Frankel and Henry Tazelaar, offers a more in-depth review of a broad range of topics important to all pathology practitioners. This year, Diagnostic Pathology will be in Anchorage, Alaska, at the Captain Cook Hotel, July 14-19. A dramatically revised format will enhance your learning and retention through the use of interactive sessions. Come join us in an environment certain to appeal to the scholar within you, while infusing your experience with fun and breathtaking views perfect for sharing with friends and family.

In addition to our expanded menu of world class meetings and events, the Academy continues to develop novel educational solutions to meet your needs in new ways. MyPath™ is a unique online tool introduced at our 2012 Annual Meeting in Vancouver. MyPath™ provides access to a broad array of curated content, as well as traditional information sources. The format combines search capabilities with social media functionality that links members of our global community around common interests while engaging experts in the fast-paced world of information and discovery.

Exciting product enhancements announced in Baltimore include the ability to "like" and comment on all content, including articles now available through PubMed and abstracts presented at our national meetings, an expanded collection of digital textbooks including some of the most important titles in pathology, and a unique bank of questions (Path-QB) that allow you to test your skills using questions aggregated from those developed for SAMs by faculty for USCAP courses.

MyPath™ is clearly emerging as the only stop you need when confronted with problems in daily practice while offering you a chance to weigh in with your peers and be at the top of your game when it comes to maintenance of certification. MyPath™'s continued growth and development is the result of a successful and unique collaboration between Brenden Taylor in our Academy office, Jeff Pritchard and members of his recently formed Informatics Implementation for e-Education Subcommittee, and our industry partners at Logic Solutions. Stay tuned for the next big thing coming from your Academy's program in education innovation.

I am firmly convinced that as a discipline and as an Academy our best days are ahead of us. It is certain that what we do tomorrow will be different than what we do today, and while change is intimidating, we are at the precipice of opportunities to reinvent ourselves in new and novel ways that are aligned with modern trends in health care.

Thank you for the opportunity to serve you as President of the USCAP during this exciting time. I look forward to working with our Executive Vice President, our Augusta staff, our Executive Committee, members of Council, our hard working committees, and you to articulate and implement strategies that will sustain us as the leader in discovery, innovation, and education for the global pathology community.


Jeff Myers, M.D.
President, USCAP
A. James French Professor
Director, Divisions of Anatomic Pathology & MLabs
The University of Michigan, Department of Pathology



Greetings Fellow Members:

The 102nd Annual Meeting of the USCAP held in Baltimore this past March, was by all accounts a resounding success.

The General Registration of the Meeting was the highest in the history of the USCAP - with 4584 in attendance - and continues our 10-year history of growth. International attendance continues to expand. In fact, more than 28 percent of our total registrants came from 71 countries outside of the U.S. and Canada - the highest percentage of international attendees ever. Of course, pathologists from all 50 U.S. states and the 10 Canadian provinces also were in attendance.

Another very important "first" this year: The Annual Meeting had the largest American Board of Pathology-approved "Self Assessment Modules" (SAM). Every single short course, as well as the Long Course, offered SAMs credit. Most of the specialty conferences, special courses and companion society meetings also offered them. According to the ABP, the USCAP has more SAMs than any other pathology society.

We had one of the highest number of scientific abstracts submitted this year as well: 2,692. The quality of the submitted abstracts remains very high. A total of 2,105 were accepted after "blind" peer review (78%), 1,825 of which were poster presentations. Abstracts were submitted from around the world (from approximately 40 countries and more than 450 academic medical centers and institutions). You may view these abstracts online. They are searchable by topic, disease, word, technique, author, institution, etc.

Our record number of attendees also found a growing number of exhibitors in our Exhibition Hall with a total of 235 booths representing 118 companies. In recent years, the Academy has twice won Tradeshow Week's award for the "Fastest 50 Growing Shows".

It takes many hands to create such a successful meeting, and I'd like to thank all who supported this tremendous effort. I truly look forward to seeing you at the next Annual Meeting, which will be held in San Diego, March 1-7, 2014.


Bruce Smoller, M.D.
Executive Vice President


The Membership elected three new Council Members this year. Their terms of service begin April 1, 2013. Your new Council Members are:

N. Volkan Adsay, MD

Dr. Volkan Adsay is Professor of Pathology, Vice Chair, and Director of Anatomic Pathology at Emory University. After graduating from Hacettepe University School of Medicine (Turkey), Dr. Adsay trained in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York and went on to complete the Oncologic Pathology Fellowship at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, staying the following year as Chief Fellow. He has published over 180 peer-reviewed articles, more than 180 abstracts presented at the USCAP, as well as multiple chapters, including ones in Diagnostic Surgical Pathology and Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas, mostly on oncologic pathology, in particular, pancreas and ampulla-biliary tract tumors.

He was a member of the Pancreas Review Group of the National Cancer Institute, and co-author of several chapters in the WHO book "Tumors of the Digestive System". Among his contributions, he was instrumental in the characterization of various tumor types of the pancreas and biliary tract, and was also a member of an international group that put forth the definition and criteria for pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. He currently serves on seven editorial boards, the Education Committee of the USCAP, and the Council of the Association of Directors of Anatomic Pathology.

He has given over 90 lectures on both national and international platforms, including Short Courses, and he co-directed the Long Course on Liver and Pancreas at the USCAP in 2006. He is also the recipient of multiple institutional teaching awards from medical students and residents.

Marie Christine Aubry, MD

I had the privilege of doing my pulmonary fellowship training at Mayo Clinic from 1998 to 2000 under the mentorship of Drs. Jeff Myers and Henry Tazelaar. I joined the Division of Anatomic Pathology in 2000 and advanced to full professor in 2011. I have been fortunate to have a full and satisfying career in practice, education and research, and I enjoy a diversified practice that has facilitated my growth as a pulmonary pathologist. In research, I have had the opportunity to work with a multidisciplinary team of colleagues, and that work has resulted in a number of publications focused on lung cancer.

I am the co-director for the Lung Cancer Biomarker Discovery Group of the Mayo Clinic Center of Individualized Medicine. Although research has been very satisfying, my greatest satisfaction has been as my role as educator. I currently serve as our Residency Program Director. It has been a great pleasure to see each of our trainees' progress through our program, and to develop the skills necessary to be a successful pathologist. I am also active in medical school teaching, resident teaching on a daily basis, and serve as the Pulmonary Pathology Fellowship Program Director.

My first USCAP meeting was as a second year resident and ever since, I have understood the importance of the USCAP as a practicing pathologist. It has been a pleasure to be involved in the USCAP through scientific presentations and participation in several short and long courses at our Annual Meeting, abstract reviews, and as a member of the Education Committee. I very much appreciate the nomination for Council and consider it another great opportunity to be engaged in critical USCAP activities.

Marc Ladanyi, MD

Dr. Marc Ladanyi received his MD from McGill University in Montreal in 1984, where he also began his training in pathology. He completed his pathology training with fellowships in cancer pathology and genetics at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), joining the faculty in 1993. He established clinical molecular diagnostic testing at MSKCC and is presently Attending Pathologist on Molecular Diagnostics Service in the Department of Pathology and Member in the Human Oncology & Pathogenesis Program at MSKCC. Since 2010, he holds the endowed William Ruane Chair in Molecular Oncology at MSKCC.

Dr. Ladanyi's research group has identified many genetic diagnostic markers in sarcomas that are now in routine use. More recently, his group has been applying new genomic technologies and high throughput drug screening approaches to sarcomas. For his research work in sarcomas, Dr. Ladanyi has received Young Investigator Awards from MSKCC (2001) and from the USCAP (2005) and has been honored by the Connective Tissue Oncology Society (2007) and the Sarcoma Foundation of America (2012). He has also led recent efforts to implement routine screening of patient tumor specimens for mutations that can guide the selection of targeted therapies, particularly in lung cancer.

His research has extended to include the genomics and molecular pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinomas and mesothelioma, work recognized by a prize from Uniting Against Lung Cancer (2009). Dr. Ladanyi also co-directs The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) group at MSKCC, part of the NCI/NHGRI TCGA network. He is Associate or Senior Editor at the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics and Clinical Cancer Research and also serves on the Advisory Board of the Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine and on the editorial boards of the Journal of Pathology and Diagnostic Molecular Pathology. He has authored or co-authored over 240 primary research papers and over 50 reviews and commentaries.

Dr. Ladanyi has been a member of the USCAP for over 25 years and has served on the Education Committee (2003-07) and as Long Course Director (2007). Most recently, he served on the ad hoc USCAP Task Force on Translational Genomics. As a USCAP Council Member, he will seek to promote the future development of pathology as the specialty dedicated to generating clinically relevant information from patient samples, whether by morphologic or molecular means.


As we wrap-up the 2013 Annual Meeting and begin preparations for the 2014 Annual Meeting I am reminded that there are several courses from the 2011 Annual Meeting that are nearing the end of their certification period.  Until October 4, 2013 you are able to purchase the special course "Practical Guide to Molecular Testing in Cancer" and earn 4.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s) TM, the two special courses "Careers in Investigative Pathology: Get Published" and "Navigating the Academic Waters" and earn and 2 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™, and several online short courses and earn 3 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ per short course.  A SAM test, which is included with each course, must be passed to obtain these credits. You will be able to claim credit for these activities until April 4, 2013.

It is important to understand that while USCAP as a provider of accredited education for physicians can review and re-release an enduring material every three years, or more frequently, the enduring material cannot be offered as an accredited activity for more than three years without some review or evaluation on our part to ensure that the content is current and accurate.  With that, we expect that the following short courses, special courses, and long course will be available in early May for purchase.  All courses will offer AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. 


  • Short Course 02: 3 hours Proteomics for Pathologists
  • Short Course 16: 3 hours Thyroid FNA: Using the Bethesda System
  • Short Course 17: 3 hours Difficult Diagnoses in Endocrine Pathology
  • Short Course 21: 3 hours Biopsy Pathology/GI Neoplasia
  • Short Course 22: 3 hours Modern Prostate Needle Biopsy Interpretation
  • Short Course 51: 3 hours Infectious Disease Pathology
  • Short Course 54: 3 hours Non-neoplastic Surgical Neuropathology
  • Short Course 57: 3 hours Ophthalmic Pathology
  • Short Course 58: 3 hours Diffuse Lung Disease
  • Short Course 60: 3 hours Lean Quality Improvement
  • Short Course 61: 3 hours Transplant Pathology of Solid Organs
  • Long Course:      5 hours Soft Tissue Tumors (2013)
  • Special Course:   4.5 hours A Practical Guide to Molecular Testing in Cancer (13)
  • Special Course:   4.5 hours Advanced Molecular Pathology (2013)
  • Special Course:   6 hours Basic Principles in Cytology (2013)


For any information related to live or enduring activities. Please feel free to contact any member of the USCAP Education Department.


 The USCAP is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.






Claiming CME/SAM Credits


How do I claim my CME/SAM Credits for the 2013 USCAP Annual Meeting? Claim your CME and SAM credits online until September 30, 2013. As a USCAP member benefit these credits will become part of your personalized CME/MOC Electronic Portfolio - an impressive and comprehensive continuing educational transcript. Remember! After September 30, 2013, you will not be able to obtain any CME or SAM credits for the 2013 Annual Meeting.

Where do I find this online? To complete your CME and SAM credits, click on " CME Claim/Evaluations/SAM Tests" found on the home page under the Bulletin Section. You must complete Step 1 (evaluate all individual sessions for which you intend to claim CME/SAM credit), Step 2 (overall evaluation of the 2013 Annual Meeting), and optional Step 3 (complete SAM tests for eligible educational offerings) before completing the claim.  Please make sure that you tranmit your credits! 

How many credits were available at the 2013 Annual Meeting? Participants had the opportunity to earn a maximum of 53.5 CME and 48.5 SAM credits to enrich their practice of pathology.

Didn't attend the USCAP Annual Meeting? There's still time to earn credits by participating in selected courses! You can view 11 short courses, 3 special courses, and the Long Course from the 2013 Annual Meeting at discounted member rates, online, at the USCAP's eLibrary. You will receive all the benefits and credits as offered through the meeting. While you are there, check out past meeting courses that are also available.

How can I gain additional CME and SAM credits online? The eAcademy is your one stop shop to help meet your MOC and continuing education efforts.  Within the eAcademy you'll find two types of educational opportunities: eLibrary and APECS.  The eLibrary is composed of select past courses - from the broad array offered at the Annual Meetings to specialized courses like Diagnostic Pathology - complete with the lecturer's PowerPoint presentations integrated into their audiotaped presentations along with handouts distributed with the courses.  The APECS courses are case-based  which enables you to review a case, make a diagnosis, and compare it to your peers.  Both learning programs are rich in content - and more importantly - available at your convenience.

What other CME-earning opportunities does the USCAP Offer in 2013? Our Practical Pathology Seminars will be held in San Francisco, California, May 2 - 5. And our popular Diagnostic Pathology Update will be held in Anchorage, Alaska, this July 14 - 19.

Thinking further ahead? Click here to find out about the USCAP's future courses. Or contact the USCAP Membership Team at or give us a call at 706.733.7550 for more information.


New Trainee Discounts during "The Boards"

With the ABP Spring Boards on the horizon, the USCAP is pleased to introduce a new member benefit to help offset the costs associated with traveling to and staying in Florida during the Boards. By clicking on the Trainee Discount Page found in the Bulletin Section of the home page, Trainees have access to airfare, hotel, and dining discounts. The hotels and restaurants featured on this page are within walking distance of the ABP Testing Center. The Dining Coupons are actually digital - and can be utilized at the restaurant with your smart phone or iPad - so there's no worry of losing them.

We wish those heading for the Boards the best of success. We look forward to welcoming you as Full Members in the near future!


Dear Colleagues & Friends,

I am honored to serve as the incoming Chair for the USCAP Foundation and to follow in the footsteps of Jonathan Epstein who made such important strides in establishing the mission of the Foundation and moving it forward from its inception to this point.  

The USCAP Foundation has many exciting opportunities before it, and will continue to shape its mission and support programs for the benefit our Academy and the pathology community.

Over the last year, the USCAP Foundation and philanthropic funds have provided the below impact and we are eager to do more with your help.

  • $15,000 Pilot Funding for Johns Hopkins-USCAP Partnership to create an Atlas of Dermatopathology for the MyPath™ application.
  • $15,000 to sponsor the 2013 Residents' Leadership Workshop to enable 80 pathologists-in-training to attend the 2013 Annual Meeting Residents' Leadership Workshop at no cost.
  • $15,000 to fund a pilot program for a traveling school throughout West Africa in June 2013.
  • $10,000 to fund the Innovative Products Committee with product development efforts such as the launch of MyPath™ as the leading search engine for the pathology community.
  • The Stowell-Orbison Endowment fund provided 4 awards of $500 each to trainees selected with the best papers through the medium of a poster presentation at the 2013 Annual Meeting.
  • The F. Stephen Vogel Endowment fund provided 1 award of $1,000 to a pathologist-in-training in recognition of their paper published in the Academy journals.
  • The Stoddard Award Endowment fund provided registration fees for 3 international resident pathologists from underserved countries to register and attend the 2013 USCAP Annual Meeting.
  • $7,500 to support international resident pathologists from countries in need for travel scholarships to enable their attendance at the 2013 USCAP Annual Meeting.

With your donations and continuous input, we continue to evaluate the many ways that the Foundation may serve for the benefit of pathology. We also partner with Council and existing USCAP committees to spark ideas for worthy projects that can make a true difference in the lives of our colleagues and practice of pathology.  However, we learn more each day that the needs are plentiful and funding is limited. 

Many opportunities lie ahead as we reach out to you throughout the year with ways in which to contribute.   Spring and fall outreach efforts will raise funds for general needs while offering donors the unique opportunity to support a specific area of interest.  In the fall, we will again launch a Leadership Campaign encouraging individuals to support one of the Foundation's major giving societies while helping us reach our campaign goal.  Last year this campaign raised $76,063 through individual gifts from members of our Foundation board, the USCAP Council, and USCAP committees, as well as friends and the USCAP Staff. All gifts are important, regardless of their size, and make a difference when combined.

In closing, we are in a unique and wonderful position of connecting those in need to those who can help, which can produce transformational results.  So, please keep us in mind as you contemplate your philanthropic planning this year.

Again, I am humbled to serve the Academy in this meaningful way and look forward to involving you, our constituents, along this meaningful journey. 

Most sincerely,

Tarik Elsheikh, MD
Chair, The USCAP Foundation
Anatomic Pathology Medical Director
Cleveland Clinic Laboratories


The 2015 USCAP Annual Meeting Needs Your Expertise. Be included in pathology's body of knowledge by presenting your insights to an international audience at the world's largest pathology meeting. The USCAP needs additional specialty and subspecialty topics. Find out which topics are needed, application details, and timelines by clicking here or by looking for the link under the Bulletin section of the homepage. Proposals will be accepted until Friday, September 13, 2013. 


The USCAP is pleased to announce its partnership with the German Division of the International Academy of Pathology to create the first co-organized Diagnostic Pathology Seminar. The event will be held September 13 - 15, 2013, and take place in Cologne, Germany.

"Our Seminar focuses on developing pragmatic solutions for difficult cases from daily diagnostic work," said co-organizer Dietmar Schmidt. "We've developed a roster of renowned speakers from both divisions and look forward to collaborating with our peers during the three day event."

The Seminar topics include molecular pathology of lung tumors, dermatopathology, gastrointestinal pathology, gynecopathology, and hematopathology.

"We are very excited to again work with another division of the IAP to create a fantastic course that leverages the strengths of pathology professionals on both sides of the Atlantic," stated the USCAP's Bruce Smoller. " It is my hope that this effort will encourage more international collaboration at all levels."


If you have ever thought about traveling overseas to share your expertise as a pathologist, Medical Teams International would love to talk with you about volunteering in Burundi or Cameroon!

You can make a world of difference in these two African countries by volunteering for 2-4 weeks, teaching and training African physicians, residents, and lab technicians vital skills in pathology. Dates are generally flexible, and the cost is about $3,000 including air fare, lodging, and all in-country transportation.

Medical Teams International and our in-country partners will take care of all the travel arrangements, lodging and food for you during your stay. Details about volunteer opportunities and the application process are available on the Medical Teams International web site at

Please call Brenda Porter, Medical Teams International Volunteer Recruiter at (503) 624-1020, call toll free at (800)959-4325, or email Brenda at for more information.



Dr. Berard
Dr. Berard began his higher education at Princeton University, graduating first in his class in 1955. His oratorical skills first led him to consider a career in the law; however, he chose instead to study medicine at Harvard Medical School. He graduated in Cum Laude in 1959. Following an internship at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New York, Dr. Berard served at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. In 1963, Dr. Berard came to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institutes of Health, where he became Chief of the Hematopathology Section from 1970-80. From 1980 to 1997, Dr. Berard was Chairman of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee.

Berard is well known for his leadership and contributions to the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, leaving his mark on virtually all aspects of Academy affairs. He served as President from 1991-92, as well as Councilor (1985-88), International Councilor (1986-88 and 1992-94), a member of the Executive Committee (1989-93), Education Committee (1979-83) and Finance Committee (1992-96). He twice served as the Director of the Long Course (1974 and 1986), and was also Short Course faculty member giving a course on lymph node pathology from 1979-85. He had an impact on the Academy's journals as well, serving as an Editorial Board member of both Modern Pathology and Laboratory Investigation. In 1998 he was awarded the F.K. Mostofi Distinguished Service Award for outstanding service to the International Academy of Pathology and its United States & Canadian Division.

Dr. Batsakis
Dr. John Batsakis received his Medical Degree from the University of Michigan in 1954 and interned at the George Washington University Hospital. A four year residency in pathology at the University of Michigan Medical School was followed by a two year service as assistant chief of the laboratory service, Walter Reed Army Medical Hospital. From 1961 through 1979 John was on the faculty of the Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, achieving Professor status in 1968. From 1979 to 1981 he was Chairman of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Maine Medical Center, Portland Maine. He joined The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in 1981, as the Chairman of the Division of Pathology and retired in 1996 as Professor Emeritus. Dr. Batsakis had numerous visiting professorships, many with the U.S. Army, and also abroad. Dr. Batsakis was an active member of the USCAP since 1976. He served on the USCAP Council as well as conducted several Short Courses.