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The development of ancillary techniques as adjuncts to diagnosis came shortly after the emergence of
cytology in the 1950s. More recently the new techniques applied to cytopathology as ancillary methods have
included immunocytochemistry, flow and image cytometry, and molecular cytopathology. The application of
these new approaches has been accompanied by numerous errors and pitfalls resulting from improper technique,
over-reliance on the results and misunderstanding of the uses and limitations of the new methods.